Annotated list of resources on RFIDs
Government of Canada
"Fact Sheet on RFID Technology." Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada. February 23, 2006
This fact sheet provides a broad overview of RFID technology and then posits a privacy management framework that can be applied to RFID technology through the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA).
"Annual Report to Parliament 2005 on the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, RFID Technology." Federal Privacy Commissioner Jennifer Stoddart. Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada. May 30, 2006
This report outlines the recent activities of the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada. The report details the OPC's recent survey of Canadian companies utilizing RFID technology and the privacy protection measures these businesses currently have in place. The OPC report concludes that it is the intention of the Privacy Commissioner to develop comprehensive guidelines for proper RFID use and privacy protection measures as the technology becomes more common.
"An Analysis of Legal and Technological Privacy Implications of Radio Frequency Identification Technologies." Dr. Teresa Scassa, Dr. Theodore Chiasson, Professor Michael Deturbide and Professor Anne Uteck. Report to the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada. April 28, 2005
This report is a detailed, thorough and comprehensive analysis of privacy concerns and policy options with respect to emerging RFID technology.
"Location Based Services and the Surveillance of Mobility: An Analysis of Privacy Risks In Canada." Professor Colin J. Bennett and Lori Crowe. Report to the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada. June 2005
This report advocates the development of more stringent regulations in regards to location-based tracking services provided by RFID manufacturers.
"Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Beyond Customer Mandate." Industry Canada. March 2005
This guidance document advocates how Canadian companies can implement cost-effective RFID technology into their supply-chain management systems.
"Radio Frequency Identification and the Need to Protect Personal Information." Mavis Taillieu, MLA. Canadian Parliamentary Review. Winter 2006/07
This article examines the threats to personal privacy posed by RFID technology and the author, a member of the Manitoba legislature, posits that the Parliament of Canada must take a serious look at RFID technologies and their implications for Canadian society.
"La technologie d'identification par radiofréquence (RFID) doit-on s'en méfier?" Gaetan Laberge. Commission d'acces a l'information du Quebec. May 2006.
This document examines recent RFID developments and considers the merits of developing RFID specific legislation for the Province of Quebec.
"Privacy Guidelines for RFID Information Systems." Ontario Privacy Commissioner Dr. Ann Cavoukian. Office of the Ontario Information and Privacy Commission. June 19, 2006
This document is intended to serve as privacy "best practices" guidance for organizations in Ontario when designing and operating Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) information technologies and systems.
"Practical Tips for Implementing RFID Privacy Guidelines." Ontario Privacy Commissioner Dr. Ann Cavoukian. Office of the Ontario Information and Privacy Commission. June 19, 2006
This paper is a response from the IPC to organizations that have expressed a particular interest in receiving practical tips to complement their current consideration and use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology.
"Tag, You're It: Privacy Implications of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology." Ontario Privacy Commissioner Dr. Ann Cavoukian. Office of the Ontario Information and Privacy Commission. February 1, 2004
This paper was produced as an educational tool to help the public understand what an RFID is; to help focus attention on the privacy issues; and to advance the privacy principles that need to be considered by businesses during the design and use of this technology.
"Commissioner urges businesses to consider privacy obligations before implementing RFID technology." Alberta Privacy Commissioner Frank Work. Office of the Information and Privacy Commissioner of Alberta. April 5, 2004
Alberta's Privacy Commissioner urges organizations to consider their privacy obligations to the public when implementing RFID technologies into their workplaces. The Privacy Commissioner posits a host of considerations that organizations should take into account before and while utilizing RFID technology.
Other Canadian RFID Online Resources
"Not So Crazy About the Chips." Professor Ian Kerr. Innovate Magazine. Spring 2005.
Professor Ian Kerr's article provides a broad analysis of the reactions of society to new technology (in this case, RFIDs). Professor Kerr's article notes that we are entering a new era of human implants/biometric technology with "no plan, no control, no brakes."
"Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Privacy: Shopping into Surveillance." George Hariton, John Lawford and Hasini Palihapitiya. Public Interest and Advocacy Centre. February 2006.
This report looks at privacy issues surrounding the likely use of RFID by major retailers, and suggests limits to these systems consistent with present privacy laws, as well as comments on whether the present privacy law regimes adequately protect consumers from retail surveillance.
"Chipping At Your Privacy." The Hour With George Stromboulopoulos, CBC News Online. Segment aired May 31, 2006
The Hour's George Stromboulopoulos investigates the growing use of Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFID) in North America's retail and financial industries. George Stromboulopoulos then interviews reporter Annalee Newitz of Wired Magazine on the rise of RFID technology and discusses privacy concerns surrounding the lack of proper security protections in inexpensive chips currently utilized by most retailers. Segment runs 6 minutes and 49 seconds.
"RFID and privacy - Tracking your patterns?" CBC News Online. May 31, 2006
News article reporting on the May 2006 report to Parliament by Federal Privacy Commissioner Jennifer Stoddart. The report lists the concerns of the Privacy Commissioner in regards to the growing use of Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFID) in retail chains. The Privacy Commissioner is concerned that the information could be utilized to surreptitiously track and profile consumers after purchasing a RFID tagged product.
"Canadian Industry Meets to Collaborate on Supply Chain Standards." GS1 Canada. January 3, 2007
GS1 Canada is a not-for-profit organization that promotes and maintains global standards for the identification of goods, locations and related e-commerce communication, such as bar code issuance and maintenance. In this article, GS1 announces the successes of a private committee of RFID manufacturers and users, the Canadian Collaborative Commerce Committee, and their development of private supply chain standards for Canadian businesses that utilize RFID in their inventory and product management systems.
"RFID Tags and The Canadian Cattle Industry." The Canadian Cattle Identification Agency (CCIA). September 1, 2006
An online brochure outlining the CCIA's cattle identification program. The Canadian Cattle Identification Program is an industry initiated and established trace back system designed for the containment and eradication of animal disease.
"RFID Standards - ISO and EPC Global." NTE Consulting - Canada's RFID System Integrator. 2006
NTE Consulting is a Canadian RFID distributor and integrator. This webpage has a very useful chart that breaks down in detail RFID standards designed by the ISO and EPC Global Inc.
"Radio Frequency Identification - Opportunities and Challenges." U.S. Department of Commerce. April 2005
This paper provides a summary of RFID technology, the policy issues surrounding the use of the technology, and explores the technology's implications for international trade, standards, spectrum, small- to medium-sized enterprises, intellectual property rights, and economic growth. While RFID applications are being tested in both commercial and government applications in the United States, this paper focuses primarily on RFID applications, its benefits and implementation challenges for the U.S. commercial sector.
"Radiofrequency Identification Feasibility Studies and Pilot Programs for Drugs." U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). November 2004
This directive from the U.S. FDA outlines how pharmaceutical manufacturers can lawfully use RFID technology to monitor drug supplies.
"Information Security - Radio Frequency Identification Technology in the Federal Government - Report to Congressional Requesters." United States Accountability Office (GAO). May 2005
This report from the U.S. Government Accountability Office found that thirteen government agencies are using or plan to use Radio Frequency Identification tags. The report notes that only one agency identified any legal or privacy issues with the use of the tags, which can be read remotely. The agencies plan to use RFID chips in ID cards to track employees' movements and improve security at entrances and exits to government buildings.
"2005 Wisconsin Act 482." Government of the State of Wisconsin. June 13, 2006
An Act that bans employers from requiring their employees to submit to a human microchip implant at a daily fine of $10, 000 per day for each daily and continuing human microchip implant violation.
North American Website Articles and Organizations Focused on RFIDs
RFID Journal is an independent media company devoted solely to radio frequency identification and its business applications.
The EPC Global Network is a community of trading partners engaged in the capture, sharing, and discovery of EPC related data using EPC Global certified hardware and software components and standard interfaces. Allowing organizations to be more effective by enabling true visibility of information about items in the supply chain by using the EPC Global Network standards and EPC tags.
CASPIAN is a consumer rights advocacy group opposed to RFID technology in consumer products. CASPIAN's website provides information and resources for community and national action opposing consumer tracking devices. CASPIAN's website also includes a list of proposed U.S. State legislation that has been promoted in opposition to the pervasive use of RFID in products, animals and humans.
"RFID Right to Know Act." Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering (CASPIAN). 2003.
A proposed legislative Act drawn up from CASPIAN that sets out the limits of fair RFID technology use and proper disclosure methods for consumers of RFID technology in consumer products.
"Radio Frequency Identification Systems." Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC).
EPIC is a public interest research group focused on liberties and emerging privacy issues. This website contains a broad overview of RFID technology and a regularly updated RFID newswire containing RFID related news items from across North America.
"Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)." Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF).
The EFF is a non-profit advocacy and legal organization with the purpose of being dedicated to preserving free speech rights in the context of today's digital age. EFF's RFID webpage carries a varied list of RFID related topics (RFIDs in libraries, schools, consumer products, ID cards, etc.) and web links to online resources.
"Electronic Product Code Global North America Inc. Standards." EPC Global North America Inc. 2007
EPC Global Standards for EPC translation and interface, reader standards, application level standards, object naming service standards, EPC Global Certificate Profile standards and reader management standards.
"RFID Position Statement of Consumer Privacy and Civil Liberties Organizations." Privacy Rights Clearinghouse. November 30, 2003
A joint statement from over thirty organizations and individuals committed to the protection of privacy and civil liberties, on the deployment of RFID technology in the consumer environment.
"Center for Democracy & Technology's Working Group on RFID's -Privacy Best Practices for Deployment of RFID Technology." National Consumers League (NCL). May 1, 2006
This document is primarily intended to address privacy implications of RFID technology, particularly with respect to control of Personal Identifiable Information. This document's goal is also to increase transparency about the use of RFID technology involving consumers. The document ends with NCL's proposed "best practices" for RFID use in the retail sector.
VeriChip Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Applied Digital, markets a line of human implantable Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Devices (including VeriChip) used in security, financial, emergency identification, and other applications. The RFID implants are utilized for such uses as patient tracking, infant protection, emergency personnel tracking, asset tracking and tracking devices for pets and the elderly. This website also contains a link to VeriChip's privacy standards. The Electronic Privacy Information Center runs a watchdog EPIC VeriChip Page.
"InCom Corporation." 2004
InCom Corporation is the exclusive developer and manufacturer of the InClassTM attendance taking, reporting and security system. The Company has developed the first complete RF based system for taking, recording and reporting attendance in schools. The Electronic Privacy Information Center runs a watchdog EPIC Children and RFIDs Page.
"Blue Star Inc." 2006
Blue Star Inc. is a RFID technology distributor. This webpage contains a number of useful RFID case studies, "white papers," standards, mandate information, etc.
"The RFID Hacking Underground." Annalee Newitz. Wired Magazine. May 2006
This fascinating article details the growth of RFID hackers who utilize simplistic readers to "swipe" RFID signals from unsuspecting passersby. These hackers have used this technology to steal cars, credit card information and gain access to restricted buildings and offices.
"RFID tags used to teach English." ZD Net - Emerging Technology Trends. April 26, 2006
This article details how two young entrepreneurs are using RFID technology in educational children's toys.
"UK consumers against the pervasive use of RFID." No Tags UK Campaign.
No Tags UK is an independent consumer organization founded in the UK. The aim of No Tags UK is to inform citizens of the advances in Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and the potential impact these devices could have on individual privacy and liberty.
"Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID): Drivers, Challenges and Public Policy Considerations." Ms. Karine Perset. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) - Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry. February 27, 2006
This document is the result of research intended to provide background and facilitate discussions at the OECD ICCP Foresight Forum on RFID, which was held in Paris on October 5, 2005. It has been revised to integrate comments provided to the Secretariat after the Forum by member-countries. The report takes stock of current and future RFID applications and their potential economic and social benefits; and includes a forward-looking policy discussion on critical issues raised by RFID, including infrastructure and standards as well as security and privacy concerns.
"Resolution on Radio-Frequency Identification - September 8, 2005." Transatlantic Consumer Dialogue (TACD). September 8, 2005
The Transatlantic Consumer Dialogue is a forum of US and EU consumer organisations which develops and agrees joint consumer policy recommendations to the US government and European Union to promote the consumer interest in EU and US policy making. This resolution on RFIDs addresses a variety of concerns that TACD has with the growing use and prevalence of RFID devices in consumer products.
"Toward's An RFID Policy for Europe." EU Office of the European Commissioner
For Information Society & Media. 2007
This website is the host portal of the process launched by the EU Information Society &
Media Commissioner to create a continental EU policy on RFID technology regulations.
"ARTICLE 29 Data Protection Working Party - Working document on data protection issues related to RFID technology." Data Commissioners of Europe. Chair Peter Schaar. January 19, 2005
Under Article 29 of the EU Directive, a Working Party is established, made up of the Data Protection Commissioners from the EU. The Working Party seeks to harmonize the application of data protection rules throughout the EU, and publishes opinions and recommendations on various data protection topics. In this particular report, the Working Party examines the use of RFID technology and makes several recommendations as to how RFID tags should be regulated in Europe.
"Consumer concerns on potential harmful applications around RFID." The European Consumers' Organization (BEUC). 2005.
A general discussion paper outlining BEUC's support of the potential of RFIDs to dramatically improve business management. The paper also outlines BEUC's concerns in regards to the negative impacts that RFID will have on personal privacy. The paper also includes a link to BEUC's response to the "Article 29 Data Protection Working Party - Working document on data protection issues related to RFID technology."
"ISO Supply Chain RFID Standards." Richard Rees, Chair of the British Standards Institution. International Organization for Standardization. May 25, 2004
Technical frequency and specific use standards for RFID tags developed by the ISO.
"Information technology - Radio frequency identification (RFID) and the world of radio regulations." Josef Schuermann, Chair of the SubGroup on Regulatory Matters of ISO. May 2000
An early brief by the ISO on the coming RFID revolution in inventory, retail and product identification industries.
This page last updated: June 2, 2007